Cloudy Sunset at the Olgas - Banner taken from photographs by Robert Steel-Wilson


While i go to a lot of trouble to make sure that the programs used and the advice given here is bulletproof, you cannot hold me responsible for any loss damage or corruption caused by following any advice given or installing and running any of the software recommended on this site. However, it is the way i run my PCs (i have 5 or 6 altogether at home) so I'm not suggesting anybody do anything that i wouldn't do.

© philsteelwilson! last updated: 11th July 2014
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It's Everywhere!

These days there are more devices running linux than any other operating system, from high end servers and desktops to smartphones and tablets and supercomputers, linux truly is everywhere.

I thought it might be helpful to run a linux page with some bits and pieces of useful information for all of us linux geeks, please feel free to join the conversation at the end of the page!

Linux Terminal Commands

./ = Run a script or program

Enter = Run the command

cd .. = move up one directory

cd = move to home directory from anywhere

ls -al = list hidden files

date = Show the current date and time

cal = Show this month's calendar

uptime = Show current uptime

w = Display who is online

top = show running processes

whoami = Who you are logged in as

finger user = Display information about user

uname -a = Show kernel information

cat /proc/cpuinfo = CPU information

cat /proc/meminfo = Memory information

df = Show disk usage

du = Show directory space usage

free = Show memory and swap usage

Up Arrow = Show the previous command

service --status-all

tasksel --list-tasks

tasksel --task-packages dns-server

shutdown -h now = Shutdown the system now and do not reboot

halt = Stop all processes - same as above

shutdown -r 5 = Shutdown the system in 5 minutes and reboot

shutdown -r now = Shutdown the system now and reboot

reboot = Stop all processes and then reboot - same as above

startx = Start the X system

ifconfig = List IP addresses for all devices on the local machine

ping -c n host = Ping -c number of packets for host and output results

whois domain = Get whois information for domain

dig domain = Get DNS information for domain

dig -x host = Reverse lookup host

Ctrl + A = Return to the start of the command you're typing

Ctrl + E = Go to the end of the command you're typing

Ctrl + U = Cut everything before the cursor to a special clipboard, erases the whole line

Ctrl + K = Cut everything after the cursor to a special clipboard

Ctrl + Y = Paste from the special clipboard that Ctrl + U and Ctrl + K save their data to

Ctrl + T = Swap the two characters before the cursor (you can actually use this to transport a character from the left to the right, try it!)

Ctrl + W = Delete the word / argument left of the cursor in the current line

Ctrl + D = Log out of current session, similar to exit

date +%s = Display the UNIX timestamp

/etc/init.d/apache2 restart = Restart Apache Server

Here's a one-liner that's handy to have in your .profile:

alias ducks='du -cks * |sort -rn |head -11'

Once this alias is in place, running ducks in any directory will show you the total in use, followed by the top 10 disk hogs.

How to Install .run Files

I am going to be using a file with the dummy name ''.

You should replace 'phil' with the name of the file you are trying to install!

1. Open a terminal. In Gnome the terminal is found in Applications > Accessories > Terminal.

2. Navigate to the directory of the .run file. For this example, I have mine on the desktop so I would type in 'cd ~/Desktop' and press enter.

3. Type 'chmod +x' press enter.

4. Now type './', press enter, and the installer will run.

How to Install .bin Files

I am going to be using a file with the dummy name 'phil.bin'.

You should replace 'phil' with the name of the file you are trying to install!

You'll need to tell Ubuntu that this file must be 'executed' and not opened in a program, like .odf files are opened by OpenOffice.

Right to execute a .bin file in Ubuntu first save the .bin file somewhere on your desktop for convenience. Then right-click the file and click 'Properties'. Click the 'Permissions' tab and check the 'Allow executing file as program' checkbox. Press Close and you are ready to execute a .bin file.

If it stll doesn't work you may have to resort to executing commands in the terminal window. Open your Terminal window which is found in 'Applications' > 'Accessories' > 'Terminal'. If you have saved the .bin file on your Desktop, execute this command:

sudo chmod +x phil.bin

It will ask for your password. Enter it and hit Enter. Please remember that being Linux it is case sensitive. Now, simply execute the file by executing:


It might ask for the password again, but at least this way you can execute your .bin file.

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